Research on Biomedical Engineering
Research on Biomedical Engineering
Original Article

Application of FT-IR spectroscopy to assess physiological stress in rugby players during fatigue test

Caetano Júnior, Paulo Cesar; Lemes, Lia Campos; Aguiar, Josafá Carvalho; Strixino, Juliana Ferreira; Raniero, Leandro

Downloads: 0
Views: 728


Introduction: The diagnosis based on salivary biomarkers provides information about the physiological condition. However, the clinical trials used to analyze these biomarkers are relatively expensive and laborious. Thus, the purpose of this study was to identify the physiological stress in players using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR). Methods: Thirteen male rugby players were submitted to the treadmill fatigue test and saliva collections were performed before and immediately after test. The FT-IR spectra of saliva samples were analyzed by the second derivative and cluster analysis. Results: From the results of cluster analysis were possible to discriminate the spectra of saliva before and after physical effort using the spectral region between 1490 to 1420 cm–1. Only the saliva spectra from two players were not discriminated in pre-exercise group and post-exercise group, which are in agreement with lowest value of heart rates. Conclusion: The second derivative showed differences between the average spectra of saliva samples collected pre and post-test, which explain the spectra discrimination by the cluster analysis using a specific infrared region for the identification of physiological stress.


Infrared spectroscopy, Saliva, Sports.


Al-Shehri S, Henman M, Charles BG, Cowley D, Shaw PN, Liley H, Tomarchio A, Punyadeera C, Duley JA. Collection and determination of nucleotide metabolites in neonatal and adult saliva by high performance liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry. Journal of Chromatography B: Analytical Technologies in the Biomedical and Life Sciences. 2013; 931:140-7. PMid:23792366.

Beekes M, Lasch P, Naumann D. Analytical applications of Fourier Transform-Infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy in microbiology and prion research. Veterinary Microbiology. 2007; 123(4):305-19. PMid:17540519.

Burini FHP, Oliveira EP, Burini RC. (Mal) adaptações metabólicas ao treinamento contínuo: concepções não consensuais de terminologia e diagnóstico. Revista Brasileira de Medicina do Esporte. 2010; 16(5):388-92.

Caetano PC Jr, Strixino JF, Raniero L. Analysis of saliva by Fourier transform infrared Spectroscopy for diagnosis of physiological stress in athletes. Research on Biomedical Engineering. 2015; 31(2):116-24.

Chamari K, Ahmaidi S, Fabre C, Ramonatxo M, Prefaut C. Pulmonary gas exchange and ventilatory responses to brief intense intermittent exercise in young trained and untrained adults. European Journal of Applied Physiology. 1995; 70(5):442-50. PMid:7671880.

Chamari K, Hachana Y, Ahmed YB, Galy O, Sghaier F, Chatard JC, Hue O, Wisloff U. Field and laboratory testing in young elite soccer players. British Journal of Sports Medicine. 2004; 38(2):191-6. PMid:15039258.

Chiappin S, Antonelli G, Gatti R, De Palo EF. Saliva specimen: a new laboratory tool for diagnostic and basic investigation. Clinica Chimica Acta. 2007; 383(1-2):30-40. PMid:17512510.

Dickerson SS, Kemeny ME. Acute stressors and cortisol responses: a theoretical integration and synthesis of laboratory research. Psychological Bulletin. 2004; 130(3):355-91. PMid:15122924.

Ellis DI, Goodacre R. Metabolic fingerprinting in disease diagnosis: biomedical applications of infrared and Raman spectroscopy. Analyst. 2006; 131(8):875-85. PMid:17028718.

Faghih RT, Dahleh MA, Brown EN. An optimization formulation for characterization of pulsatile cortisol secretion. Frontiers in Neuroscience. 2015; 9:228. PMid:26321898.

Franck P, Nabet P, Dousset B. Applications of infrared spectroscopy to medical biology. Cellular and Molecular Biology. 1998; 44(2):273-5. PMid:9593577.

Galosy RA, Clarke LK, Vasko MR, Crawford IL. Neurophysiology and neuropharmacology of cardiovascular regulation and stress. Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews. 1981; 5(1):137-75. PMid:7015187.

Galy O, Ben Zoubir S, Hambli M, Chaouachi A, Hue O, Chamari K. Relationships between heart rate and physiological parameters of performance in top-level water polo players. Biology of Sport. 2014; 31(1):33-8. PMid:24917687.

Hair JFA, Rolph E, Tatham RL. Multivariate data analysis. 7th ed. New Jersey: Prentice Hall; 1998.

Humphrey SP, Williamson RT. A review of saliva: normal composition, flow, and function. The Journal of Prosthetic Dentistry. 2001; 85(2):162-9. PMid:11208206.

Khaskheli AR, Sirajuddin, Sherazi STH, Mahesar SA, Kandhro AA, Kalwar NH, Mallah MA. Estimation of ibuprofen in urine and tablet formulations by transmission Fourier Transform Infrared spectroscopy by partial least square. Spectrochimica Acta Part A: Molecular and Biomolecular Spectroscopy. 2013; 102:403-7.

Khaustova S, Shkurnikov M, Tonevitsky E, Artyushenko V, Tonevitsky A. Noninvasive biochemical monitoring of physiological stress by Fourier transform infrared saliva spectroscopy. Analyst. 2010; 135(12):3183-92. PMid:20953513.

Khaustova SA, Shkurnikov MU, Grebenyuk ES, Artyushenko VG, Tonevitsky AG. Assessment of biochemical characteristics of the saliva using Fourier transform mid-infrared spectroscopy. Bulletin of Experimental Biology and Medicine. 2009; 148(5):841-4. PMid:20396807.

Krimm S, Bandekar J. Vibrational spectroscopy and conformation of peptides, polypeptides, and proteins. Advances in Protein Chemistry. 1986; 38:181-364. PMid:3541539.

Meeusen R, Duclos M, Foster C, Fry A, Gleeson M, Nieman D, Raglin J, Rietjens G, Steinacker J, Urhausen A. Prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of the overtraining syndrome: joint consensus statement of the European College of Sport Science and the American College of Sports Medicine. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise. 2013; 45(1):186-205. PMid:23247672.

Moreira A, Freitas CG, Nakamura FY, Drago G, Drago M, Aoki MS. Effect of match importance on salivary cortisol and immunoglobulin A responses in elite young volleyball players. Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research. 2013; 27(1):202-7. PMid:22395269.

Naumann D. Infrared spectroscopy in microbiology. Biomedical Spectroscopy. 2006. In press.

Novaković N, Cakić S, Todorović T, Raicević BA, Dozić I, Petrović V, Perunović N, Gostović SS, Sretenović JK, Colak E. Antioxidative status of saliva before and after non-surgical periodontal treatment. Srpski Arhiv za Celokupno Lekarstvo. 2013; 141(3-4):163-8. PMid:23745337.

Oberg KA, Ruysschaert JM, Goormaghtigh E. The optimization of protein secondary structure determination with infrared and circular dichroism spectra. European Journal of Biochemistry. 2004; 271(14):2937-48. PMid:15233789.

Papacosta E, Gleeson M, Nassis GP. Salivary hormones, IgA and performance during intense training and tapering in judo athletes. Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research. 2013; 27(9):2569-80. PMid:23249825.

Papacosta E, Nassis GP. Saliva as a tool for monitoring steroid, peptide and immune markers in sport and exercise science. Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport. 2011; 14(5):424-34. PMid:21474377.

Perez-Guaita D, Ventura-Gayete J, Pérez-Rambla C, Sancho-Andreu M, Garrigues S, de la Guardia M. Protein determination in serum and whole blood by attenuated total reflectance infrared spectroscopy. Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry. 2012; 404(3):649-56. PMid:22547354.

Petibois C, Déléris G, Cazorla G. Perspectives in the utilisation of Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy of serum in sports medicine: health monitoring of athletes and prevention of doping. Sports Medicine. 2000; 29(6):387-96. PMid:10870865.

Pollock ML, Gaesser GA, Butcher JD, Despr??s J-P, Dishman RK, Franklin BA, Garber CE. ACSM position stand: the recommended quantity and quality of exercise for developing and maintaining cardiorespiratory and muscular fitness, and flexibility in healthy adults. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise. 1998; 30(6):975-91. PMid:9624661.

Quammen D, Cortes N, Van Lunen BL, Lucci S, Ringleb SI, Onate J. Two different fatigue protocols and lower extremity motion patterns during a stop-jump task. Journal of Athletic Training. 2012; 47(1):32-41. PMid:22488228.

Salazar MG, Jehmlich N, Murr A, Dhople VM, Holtfreter B, Hammer E, Völker U, Kocher T. Identification of periodontitis associated changes in the proteome of whole human saliva by mass spectrometric analysis. Journal of Clinical Periodontology. 2013; 40(9):825-32. PMid:23790309.

Sapolsky RM, Romero LM, Munck AU. How do glucocorticoids influence stress responses? Integrating permissive, suppressive, stimulatory, and preparative actions. Endocrine Reviews. 2000; 21(1):55-89. PMid:10696570.

Schultz CP, Ahmed MK, Dawes C, Mantsch HH. Thiocyanate levels in human saliva: quantitation by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. Analytical Biochemistry. 1996; 240(1):7-12. PMid:8811872.

Stuart B. Biological applications of infrared spectroscopy. Chichester: John Wiley & Sons; 1997.

Yoshida S, Yoshida M, Yamamoto M, Takeda J. Optical screening of diabetes mellitus using non-invasive Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy technique for human lip. Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis. 2013; 76:169-76. PMid:23333685.
5889fbfd5d01231a018b48a7 rbejournal Articles
Links & Downloads

Res. Biomed. Eng.

Share this page
Page Sections