From the past to the future of therapeutic orthoses for upper limbs rehabilitation
Introduction: The expansion of assistive technologies has been increasing significantly, involving almost all the daily activities, performed by disabled people. One of the highlights to be mentioned is the robotic orthoses, which are being used to amplify movements, to replace amputated limbs, and for a variety of rehabilitation therapies, among others. This study aims to present a review about upper limbs’ orthoses, discussing their weaknesses, potentialities, and pointing out for future perspectives under the motor rehabilitation. Methods: For this research, it had been identified 161 papers, based on the bibliographic bases from IEEE and Science Direct, which were filtered by the keywords orthoses, hand, upper-limbs and technology. After the appropriate exclusions, 22 papers were analyzed. Results: This review indicates that most of the orthoses have been developed for rehabilitation therapies to be employed by people who have suffered stroke, cerebral palsy or spinal cord injury. This research summarized that the upper limbs movements are effectively produced by electric or pneumatic actuators, having a variety of degrees of freedom. Conclusion: This review has shown that, although there are many orthoses styles, ranging from electric to pneumatic actuators; also there are some technical restrictions that prevent their use by most people. However, upper limb orthoses seem to be a great solution for the rehabilitation of people who have suffered a stroke.
Ates S, Leon B, Basteris A, Nijenhuis S, Nasr N, Sale P, Cesario A, Amirabdollahian F, Stienen AHA. Technical evaluation of and clinical experiences with the SCRIPT passive wrist and hand orthosis. In: 2014 7th International Conference on Human System Interactions (HSI); 2014 June 16-18; Costa da Caparica, Portugal. USA: IEEE; 2014. p. 188-93. http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/HSI.2014.6860472.
Ates S, Lobo-Prat J, Lammertse P, Van der Kooij H, Stienen AHA. SCRIPT passive orthosis: design and technical evaluation of the wrist and hand orthosis for rehabilitation training at home. In: 2013 IEEE 13th International Conference on Rehabilitation Robotics (ICORR); 2013 June 24-26; Seattle, WA, USA. USA: IEEE; 2013. p. 1-6. http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/ICORR.2013.6650401.
Ates S, Mora-Moreno I, Wessels M, Stienen AHA. Combined active wrist and hand orthosis for home use: Lessons learned. In: 2015 IEEE International Conference on Rehabilitation Robotics (ICORR); 2015 Aug 11-14; Singapore. USA: IEEE; 2015. p. 398-403. http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/ICORR.2015.7281232.
Aubin PM, Sallum H, Walsh C, Stirling L, Correia A. A pediatric robotic thumb exoskeleton for at-home rehabilitation: the Isolated Orthosis for Thumb Actuation (IOTA). In: 2013 IEEE 13th International Conference on Rehabilitation Robotics (ICORR); 2013 June 24-26; Seattle, WA, USA. USA: IEEE; 2013. p. 1-6. http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/ICORR.2013.6650500.
Bae J, Kim Y, Moon I. Wearable hand rehabilitation robot capable of hand function assistance in stroke survivors. In: 2012 4th IEEE RAS & EMBS International Conference on Biomedical Robotics and Biomechatronics (BioRob); 2012 June 24-27; Rome, Italy. USA: IEEE; 2012. p. 1482-7. http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/BioRob.2012.6290736.
Gasser BW, Goldfarb M. Design and performance characterization of a hand orthosis prototype to aid activities of daily living in a post-stroke population. In: 2015 37th Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society (EMBC); 2015 Aug 25-29; Milan, Italy. USA: IEEE; 2015. p. 3877-80. http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/EMBC.2015.7319240.
Gopura RARC, Bandara DSV, Kiguchi K, Mann GKI. Developments in hardware systems of active upper-limb exoskeleton robots. Robot Auton Syst. 2016; 75:203-20. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.robot.2015.10.001.
Holley D, Johnson M, Harris G, Beardsley S. A modular low-clearance wrist orthosis for improving wrist motion in children with cerebral palsy. In: 2014 36th Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society; 2014 Aug 26-30; Chicago, IL, USA. USA: IEEE; 2014. p. 3069-72. http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/EMBC.2014.6944271.
Housman SJ, Le V, Rahman T, Sanchez RJ, Reinkensmeyer DJ. Arm-training with T-WREX after chronic stroke: preliminary results of a randomized controlled trial. In: 2007 IEEE 10th International Conference on Rehabilitation Robotics; 2007 June 13-15; Noordwijk, Netherlands. USA: IEEE; 2007. p. 562-8. http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/ICORR.2007.4428481.
Instituto Brasileiro de Geografia e Estatística – IBGE. Pesquisa nacional de saúde 2013: percepção do estado de saúde, estilos de vida e doenças crônicas: Brasil, grandes regiões e unidades da federação. Rio de Janeiro: IBGE; 2013. 180 p
Koo B, Montes J, Gamarnik V, Yeager K, Marra J, Dunaway S, Montgomery M, De Vivo DC, Strauss N, Konofagou E, Kaufmann P, Morrison B. Design and evaluation of a hybrid passive and active gravity neutral orthosis (GNO). In: 2009 Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society; 2009 Sept 3-6; Minneapolis, MN, USA. USA: IEEE; 2009. p. 1573-6. http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/IEMBS.2009.5332578.
Leeb R, Gubler M, Tavella M, Miller H, Del R Míllan J. On the road to a neuroprosthetic hand: a novel hand grasp orthosis based on functional electrical stimulation. In: 2010 Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology; 2010 Aug 31-Sept 1-4; Buenos Aires, Argentina. USA: IEEE; 2010. p. 146-9. http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/IEMBS.2010.5627412.
Low J, Ang MH, Yeow C. Customizable soft pneumatic finger actuators for hand orthotic and prosthetic applications. In: 2015 IEEE International Conference on Rehabilitation Robotics (ICORR); 2015 Aug 11-14; Singapore. USA: IEEE; 2015. p. 380-5. http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/ICORR.2015.7281229.
Luo X, Kenyon RV, Kline T, Waldinger HC, Kamper DG. An augmented reality training environment for post-stroke finger extension rehabilitation. In: ICORR 2005 9th International Conference on Rehabilitation Robotics; 2005 June 29-39, July 1; Chicago, IL, USA. USA: IEEE; 2005. p. 329-32.
Martínez-Valdés M, Cruz-Vargas JL, Gutiérrez-Martínez J, Cantillo-Negrete J, Elias-Viñas D, Castañeda-Galvan A, Hernández-Pérez A. Mechanical structure prototype and control unit for an active orthosis for a human had. In: 2014 Pan American Health Care Exchanges (PAHCE); 2014 Apr 7-12; Brasilia, Brazil. USA: IEEE; 2014. p. 1-4. http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/PAHCE.2014.6849621.
Meng W, Sheng B, Klinger M, Liu Q, Zhou Z, Xie SQ. Design and control of a robotic wrist orthosis for joint rehabilitation. In: 2015 IEEE International Conference on Advanced Intelligent Mechatronics (AIM); 2015 July 7-11; Busan, South Korea. USA: IEEE; 2015. p. 1235-40. http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/AIM.2015.7222708.
Nijenhuis SM, Prange GB, Stienentt AHA, Buurke JH, Rietman JS. Direct effect of a dynamic wrist and hand orthosis on reach and grasp kinematics in chronic stroke. In: 2015 IEEE International Conference on Rehabilitation Robotics (ICORR); 2015 Aug 11-14; Singapore, Singapore. USA: IEEE; 2015. p. 404-9. http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/ICORR.2015.7281233.
Oboe R, Daud OA, Masiero S, Oscari F, Rosati G. Development of a haptic teleoperation system for remote motor and functional evaluation of hand in patients with neurological impairments. In: 11th IEEE International Workshop on Advanced Motion Control (AMC); 2010 Mar 21-24; Nagaoka, Niigata, Japan. USA: IEEE; 2010. p. 518-23. http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/AMC.2010.5464078.
Ochoa JM, Listenberger M, Kamper DG, Lee SW. Use of an electromyographically driven hand orthosis for training after stroke. In: 2011 IEEE International Conference on Rehabilitation Robotics; June 29-30, July 1; Zurich, Switzerland. USA: IEEE; 2011. p. 1-5. http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/ICORR.2011.5975382.
Patar MNAA, Komeda T, Low CY, Mahmud J. System integration and control of finger orthosis for post stroke rehabilitation. Procedia Technology. 2014; 15:755-64. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.protcy.2014.09.048.
Ragonesi D, Agrawal S, Sample W, Rahman T. Series elastic actuator control of a powered exoskeleton. In: 2011 Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society; 2011 Aug 30-31, Sept 1-3; Boston, MA, USA. USA: IEEE; 2011. p. 3515-8. http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/IEMBS.2011.6090583.
Wolbrecht ET, Leavitt J, Reinkensmeyer DJ, Bobrow JE. Control of a Pneumatic Orthosis for Upper Extremity Stroke Rehabilitation. In: 2006 International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society; 2006 Aug 30-31, Sept 1-3; New York, NY, USA. USA: IEEE; 2006. p. 2687-93. http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/IEMBS.2006.259941.