Research on Biomedical Engineering
Research on Biomedical Engineering
Original Article

Kinematic and electromyographic analysis of school children gait with and without load in the backpack

Jéssica Garcia Jorge; Amanda Nascimento de Faria; Daniel Antônio Furtado; Adriano Alves Pereira; Eliane Maria de Carvalho; Valdeci Carlos Dionísio


Abstract Introduction: Excessive load on the backpacks can lead to musculoskeletal injuries and gait alterations. The objective of this study was to analyze the electromyographic (EMG) activity in association to the kinematic during the stance and balance phases of gait performed with and without the use of the backpack.

Methods: Twelve volunteers have executed a gait cycle in 3 tasks: without the school backpack (SM), with a backpack with load equivalent to 10% (M10) and 20% (M20) of the body weight (BW). It was evaluated the ankle, knee and hip angular excursion (AE), linear displacement (LD) of the toe and ankle, knee, hip, shoulder, head and EMG activity of the tibialis anterior (TA), vastus medialis (VM), rectus abdominis (RA), gastrocnemius lateral (GL), biceps femoris (BF) and spinal erector (EE) muscles.

Results: In the LD in the stance phase there was an AP increase for the toe and ankle, hip and head (p<0.043). In the balance phase for VT (vertical) direction, the shoulder presented a smaller displacement as well as the toe, ankle, knee, hip, shoulder and head in the ML direction. In the AP direction, the toe displacement was smaller as well as the ankle (p < 0.038). The AE in both phases was smaller for the hip (p <0.006). In the balance phase the IEMG was higher for the RA (p = 0.034).

Conclusion: These results suggest that the transport of school backpacks with loads of more than 10%BW causes changes in the kinematic and in the muscular recruitment pattern.


Kinematic, Gait, Electromyography, Overload, School children


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