Research on Biomedical Engineering
Research on Biomedical Engineering
Original article

Photoacoustic-based thermal image formation and optimization using an evolutionary genetic algorithm

João Henrique Uliana, Diego Ronaldo Thomaz Sampaio, Antonio Adilton Oliveira Carneiro, Theo Zeferino Pavan

Downloads: 0
Views: 190


Introduction: For improved efficiency and security in heat application during hyperthermia, it is important to monitor tissue temperature during treatments. Photoacoustic (PA) pressure wave amplitude has a temperature dependence given by the Gruenesein parameter. Consequently, changes in PA signal amplitude carry information about temperature variation in tissue. Therefore, PA has been proposed as an imaging technique to monitor temperature during hyperthermia. However, no studies have compared the performance of different algorithms to generate PA-based thermal images.

Methods: Here, four methods to estimate variations in PA signal amplitude for thermal image formation were investigated: peak-to-peak, integral of the modulus, autocorrelation of the maximum value, and energy of the signal. Changes in PA signal amplitude were evaluated using a 1-D window moving across the entire image. PA images were acquired for temperatures ranging from 36oC to 41oC using a phantom immersed in a temperature controlled thermal bath.

Results: The results demonstrated that imaging processing parameters and methods involved in tracking variations in PA signal amplitude drastically affected the sensitivity and accuracy of thermal images formation. The sensitivity fluctuated more than 20% across the different methods and parameters used. After optimizing the parameters to generate the thermal images using an evolutionary genetic algorithm (GA), the percentage of pixels within the acceptable error was improved, in average, by 7.5%.

Conclusion: Optimization of processing parameters using GA could increase the accuracy of measurement for this experimental setup and improve quality of PA-based thermal images.


Photoacoustic imaging, Temperature monitoring, Hyperthermia, Genetic algorithm


Alvarenga AV, Wilkens V, Georg O, Costa-Félix RPB. Non-invasive estimation of temperature during physiotherapeutic ultrasound application using the average gray-level content of B-Mode Images: a metrological approach. Ultrasound Med Biol. 2017; 43(9):1938-52. PMid:28619277.

Arthur RM, Straube WL, Starman JD, Moros EG. Noninvasive temperature estimation based on the energy of backscattered ultrasound. Med Phys. 2003; 30(6):1021-9. PMid:12852524.

Bamber JC, Hill CR. Ultrasonic attenuation and propagation speed in mammalian tissues as a function of temperature. Ultrasound Med Biol. 1979; 5(2):149-57. PMid:505616.

Beard P. Biomedical photoacoustic imaging. Interface Focus. 2011; 1(4):602-31. PMid:22866233.

Buczak AL, Wang H, Darabi H, Jafari MA. Genetic algorithm convergence study for sensor network optimization. Inf Sci (Ny). 2001; 133(3-4):267-82.

Costa-Júnior JFS, Elsztain MAD, Sá AMFLM, Machado JC. Characterization of viscoelasticity due to shear wave propagation: A comparison of existing methods based on computational simulation and experimental data. Exp Mech. 2017a; 57(4):615-35.

Costa-Júnior JFS, Parcero GC, Machado JC. Comparison analysis of four processing methods employed in dynamic elastography to estimate viscoelastic parameters of a medium: tests using computational simulation and experiment. Biomed Phys Eng Express. 2017b; 3(2).

Crile G Jr. Heat as an adjunct to the treatment of cancer: Experimental studies. Cleve Clin Q. 1961; 28(Apr):75-89. PMid:13696466.

Crouzet S, Murat FJ, Pasticier G, Cassier P, Chapelon JY, Gelet A. High intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) for prostate cancer: current clinical status, outcomes and future perspectives. Int J Hyperthermia. 2010; 26(Dec):796-803. PMid:20883113.

Duck FA. Physical properties of tissue. New York: Academic Press; 1990.

Eiben AE, Smith J. From evolutionary computation to the evolution of things. Nature. 2015; 521(7553):476-82. PMid:26017447.

Goldberg SN, Gazelle GS, Mueller PR. Thermal ablation therapy for focal malignancy: a unified approach to underlying principles, techniques and diagnostic imaging guidance. Am Roentgen Ray Soc. 2000; 323-31.

Habash RWY, Bansal R, Krewski D, Alhafid HT. Thermal therapy, part 2: Hyperthermia techniques. Crit Rev Biomed Eng. 2006; 34(6):491-542. PMID: 17725480.

Hall TJ, Bilgen M, Insana MF, Krouskop TA. Phantom materials for elastography. IEEE Trans Ultrason Ferroelectr Freq Control. 1997; 44(6):1355-65.

Ke H, Tai S, Wang LV. Photoacoustic thermography of tissue. J Biomed Opt. 2014; 19(2):26003. PMid:24522803.

Kim S, Chen YS, Luke G, Emelianov S. In-Vivo ultrasound and photoacoustic image-guided photothermal cancer therapy using silica-coated gold nanorods. IEEE Trans Ultrason Ferroelectr Freq Control. 2014; 61(5):891-7. PMid:24801630.

Larina IV, Larin KV, Esenaliev RO. Real-time optoacoustic monitoring of temperature in tissues. J Phys D Appl Phys. 2005; 38(15):2633-9.

Maass-Moreno R, Damianou CA. Noninvasive temperature estimation in tissue via ultrasound echo-shifts. Part I. Analytical model. J Acoust Soc Am. 1996a; 100(4 Pt 1):2514-21. PMid:8865654.

Maass-Moreno R, Damianou CA, Sanghvi NT. Noninvasive temperature estimation in tissue via ultrasound echo-shifts. Part II. In vitro study. J Acoust Soc Am. 1996b; 100(4 Pt 1):2522-30. PMid:8865655.

Nasoni RL, Bowen T, Connor WG, Sholes RR. In vivo temperature dependence of ultrasound speed in tissue and its application to noninvasive temperature monitoring. Ultrason Imaging. 1979; 1(1):34-43. PMid:575811.

O’Donnell M, Skovoroda AR, Shapo BM, Emelianov SY. Skovoroda A a. R, Shapo BMB, Emelianov SSY. Internal displacement and strain imaging using ultrasonic speckle tracking. IEEE Trans Ultrason Ferroelectr Freq Control. 1994; 41(3):314-25.

Pankhurst QA, Connolly J, Jones SK, Dobson J. Applications of magnetic nanoparticles in medicine. J Phys D Appl Phys. 2003; 36(3):227-38.

Park S, Karpiouk AB, Aglyamov S, Emelianov SY. Adaptive beamforming for photoacoustic imaging. Opt Lett. 2008; 33(12):1291-3. PMid:18552935.

Pavan TZ, Madsen EL, Frank GR, Carneiro AAO, Hall TJ. Nonlinear elastic behavior of phantom materials for elastography. Phys Med Biol. 2010; 55(9):2679-92. PMid:20400811.

Pinton GF, Dahl JJ, Trahey GE. Rapid tracking of small displacements using ultrasound. Proc IEEE Ultrason Symp. 2005; 4(6):2062-25.

Pramanik M, Wang LV. Thermoacoustic and photoacoustic sensing of temperature. J Biomed Opt. 2009; 14(5):54024. PMid:19895126.

Rozenberg G, Bäck T, Kok JN. Handbook of natural computing. USA: Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg; 2012.

Schüle G, Hüttmann G, Framme C, Roider J, Brinkmann R. Noninvasive optoacoustic temperature determination at the fundus of the eye during laser irradiation. J Biomed Opt. 2004; 9(1):173-9. PMid:14715070.

Seo CH, Shi Y, Huang S-W, Kim K, O’Donnell M. Thermal strain imaging: a review. Interface Focus. 2011; 1(4):649-64. PMid:22866235.

Shah J, Park S, Aglyamov S, Larson T, Ma L, Sokolov K, Johnston K, Milner T, Emelianov SY. Photoacoustic imaging and temperature measurement for photothermal cancer therapy. J Biomed Opt. 2008; 13(3):34024. PMid:18601569.

Simon C, VanBaren P, Ebbini ES. Two-dimensional temperature estimation using diagnostic ultrasound. IEEE Trans Ultrason Ferroelectr Freq Control. 1998; 45(4):1088-99. PMid:18244264.

Steger AC, Lees WR, Walmsley K, Bown SG. Interstitial laser hyperthermia: a new approach to local destruction of tumours. BMJ. 1989; 299(6695):362-5. PMid:2506968.

Straube WL, Arthur RM. Theoretical estimation of the temperature dependence of backscattered ultrasonic power for noninvasive thermometry. Ultrasound Med Biol. 1994; 20(9):915-22. PMid:7886851.

Strube HW. A generalization of correlation functions and the Wiener-Khinchin theorem. Signal Process. 1985; 8(1):63-74.

Teixeira CA, Alvarenga AV, Cortela G, Von Krüger MA, Pereira WCA. Feasibility of non-invasive temperature estimation by the assessment of the average gray-level content of B-mode images. Ultrasonics. 2014; 54(6):1692-702. PMid:24630851.

Ueno S, Hashimoto M, Fukukita H, Yano T. Ultrasound thermometry in hyperthermia. In: Ultrasonics Symposium; Proceedings IEEE; 1990 Dec 4-7; Honolulu. USA: IEEE; 1990. p. 1645–52.

Viola F, Walker WF. A comparison of the performance of time-delay estimators in medical ultrasound. IEEE Trans Ultrason Ferroelectr Freq Control. 2003; 50(4):392-401. PMid:12744395.

Wang LV, Hu S. Photoacoustic tomography: In vivo imaging from organelles to organs. Science. 2012; 335(6075):1458-62. PMid:22442475.

Wang S-H, Wei C-W, Jee S-H, Li P-C. Photoacoustic temperature mensurements for monitoring of thermal therapy. Proc. SPIE 2009; 7177:71771S1-11.

Wang SH, Wei CW, Jee SH, Li PC. Quantitative thermal imaging for plasmonic photothermal therapy. J Med Biol Eng. 2011; 31(6):387-93.

Welch AJ, van Gemert MJC. Optical-thermal response of laser-irradiated tissue. 2nd ed. New York: Springer-Verlag; 2011.

Whitley D. A genetic algorithm tutorial. Stat Comput. 1994; 4(2):65-85.

Wust P, Hildebrandt B, Sreenivasa G, Rau B, Gellermann J, Riess H, Felix R, Schlag PM. Hyperthermia in combined treatment of cancer. Lancet Oncol. 2002; 3(8):487-97. PMid:12147435.

Xu M, Wang LV. Photoacoustic imaging in biomedicine. Rev Sci Instrum. 2006; 77(4):41101.

Yao J, Ke H, Tai S, Zhou Y, Wang LV. Absolute photoacoustic thermometry in deep tissue. Opt Lett. 2013; 38(24):5228-31. PMid:24322224.

5b2c82d70e8825044e05517e rbejournal Articles
Links & Downloads

Res. Biomed. Eng.

Share this page
Page Sections