Research on Biomedical Engineering
Research on Biomedical Engineering
Review article

Perspectives on the modeling of the neuromusculoskeletal system to investigate the influence of neurodegenerative diseases on sensorimotor control

Leonardo Abdala Elias, Débora Elisa da Costa Matoso, Renato Naville Watanabe, André Fabio Kohn

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Introduction: The understanding of the neurophysiological mechanisms underlying movement control can be much furthered using computational models of the neuromusculoskeletal system. Biologically based multi-scale neuromusculoskeletal models have a great potential to provide new theories and explanations related to mechanisms behind muscle force generation at the molecular, cellular, synaptic, and systems levels. Albeit some efforts have been made to investigate how neurodegenerative diseases alter the dynamics of individual elements of the neuromuscular system, such diseases have not been analyzed from a systems viewpoint using multi-scale models.

Overview and Perspectives: This perspective article synthesizes what has been done in terms of multi-scale neuromuscular development and points to a few directions where such models could be extended so that they can be useful in the future to discover early predictors of neurodegenerative diseases, as well as to propose new quantitative clinical neurophysiology approaches to follow the course of improvements associated with different therapies (drugs or others).

Concluding Remarks: Therefore, this article will present how existing biologically based multi-scale models of the neuromusculoskeletal system could be expanded and adapted for clinical applications. It will point to mechanisms operating at different levels that would be relevant to be considered during model development, along with implications for interpreting experimental results from neurological patients.


Computational neuroscience, Neurodegenerative diseases, Neuromechanics, Spinal cord, ALS, Peripheral neuropathy


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